The lentil plant also gives its name to a geometric figure. Ptolemy 2nd century wrote a book on Optics , which however survives only in the Latin translation of an incomplete and very poor Arabic translation. The book was, however, received, by medieval scholars in the Islamic world, and commented upon by Ibn Sahl 10th century , who was in turn improved upon by Alhazen Book of Optics , 11th century. The Arabic translation of Ptolemy’s Optics became available in Latin translation in the 12th century Eugenius of Palermo Between the 11th and 13th century ” reading stones ” were invented. These were primitive plano-convex lenses initially made by cutting a glass sphere in half.
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General considerations Rock types Igneous rocks are those that solidify from magma , a molten mixture of rock-forming minerals and usually volatiles such as gases and steam. Since their constituent minerals are crystallized from molten material, igneous rocks are formed at high temperatures. They originate from processes deep within the Earth—typically at depths of about 50 to kilometres 30 to miles —in the mid- to lower-crust or in the upper mantle.
Mithra, the Light of the World, is an ancient sun god identified with Sol Invictus, who was born on December 25th. Mithra resembled Jesus Christ in many ways, including having a virgin birth, 12 companions and an ascension into heaven, as well as other doctrinal and ritual correspondences such as baptism and the eucharist.
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This age is obtained from radiometric dating and is assumed by evolutionists to provide a sufficiently long time-frame for Darwinian evolution. And OE Christians theistic evolutionists see no problem with this dating whilst still accepting biblical creation, see Radiometric Dating – A Christian Perspective. This is the crucial point: Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept. This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth YE theory.
Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is a common element found in many materials, such as micas, clay minerals, tephra, and these materials, the decay product
Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts: First, an instance where a method fails to work does not imply that it does not ever work. The question is not whether there are “undatable” objects, but rather whether or not all objects cannot be dated by a given method.
The fact that one wristwatch has failed to keep time properly cannot be used as a justification for discarding all watches. How many creationists would see the same time on five different clocks and then feel free to ignore it? Yet, when five radiometric dating methods agree on the age of one of the Earth’s oldest rock formations Dalrymple , p. The claim that the methods produce bad results essentially at random does not explain why these “bad results” are so consistently in line with mainstream science.
Claims that the assumptions of a method may be violated Certain requirements are involved with all radiometric dating methods. These generally include constancy of decay rate and lack of contamination gain or loss of parent or daughter isotope. Creationists often attack these requirements as “unjustified assumptions,” though they are really neither “unjustified” nor “assumptions” in most cases. Rates of radiometric decay the ones relevant to radiometric dating are thought to be based on rather fundamental properties of matter, such as the probability per unit time that a certain particle can “tunnel” out of the nucleus of the atom.
The nucleus is well-insulated and therefore is relatively immune to larger-scale effects such as pressure or temperature.
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With time, it became apparent that this classification scheme was much too simple. A fourth category, known as spontaneous fission, also had to be added to describe the process by which certain radioactive nuclides decompose into fragments of different weight. Alpha decay is usually restricted to the heavier elements in the periodic table. Only a handful of nuclides with atomic numbers less than 83 emit an -particle.
The product of -decay is easy to predict if we assume that both mass and charge are conserved in nuclear reactions. Alpha decay of the U “parent” nuclide, for example, produces Th as the “daughter” nuclide.
Rock, in geology, naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals. Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is comprised and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes. Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation. These classes are (1) igneous rocks, which have solidified from.
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages. Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried.
As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution. The ages from the Coast Range batholith in Alaska Table 2 are referenced by Woodmorappe to a report by Lanphere and others Whereas Lanphere and his colleagues referred to these two K-Ar ages of and million years, the ages are actually from another report and were obtained from samples collected at two localities in Canada, not Alaska. There is nothing wrong with these ages; they are consistent with the known geologic relations and represent the crystallization ages of the Canadian samples.
The Liberian example Table 2 is from a report by Dalrymple and others These authors studied dikes of basalt that intruded Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in western Liberia. The dikes cutting the Precambrian basement gave K-Ar ages ranging from to million years Woodmorappe erroneously lists this higher age as million years , whereas those cutting the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks gave K-Ar ages of from to million years. Woodmorappe does not mention that the experiments in this study were designed such that the anomalous results were evident, the cause of the anomalous results was discovered, and the crystallization ages of the Liberian dikes were unambiguously determined.
The Liberian study is, in fact, an excellent example of how geochronologists design experiments so that the results can be checked and verified. The final example listed in Table 2 is a supposed 34 billion-year Rb-Sr isochron age on diabase of the Pahrump Group from Panamint Valley, California, and is referenced to a book by Faure and Powell
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Cue disses to Philadelphia. A Running Gag has Dotcom and Grizz show that, in spite of being gigantic Scary Black Men in Tracy’s entourage, they’re the most cultured and educated people on the show. After being repeatedly antagonized by Tracy for only granting freedom to white male land-owners, an actor playing John Hancock on Boston’s Freedom Trail tries to pass off an actor playing Crispus Attucks as this, though Tracy points out that Attucks died six years before the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
Avery is kidnapped and forcefully made into a Propaganda Machine Yet again this is the same creator that managed to make getting kidnapped by a cult funny. Used several times, the first instance being when Sue, one of Liz’s writers, comes back to Tracy’s entourage after going out with a man named Doug looking disheveled and says, “I don’t remember what happened, Doug put something in my drink and
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History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.
Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.
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These are the bands that prove it. Women are making the best rock music today. Here are the bands that prove it.
30 Rock is an NBC Work Com starring Tina Fey (also a writer and executive producer as well as the creator of the series) and Alec show was launched in , and ended in January after seven seasons — not because of the suits, but because the showrunner wanted it to and Baldwin decided he wanted to do something else for a change. note.
In this post, I go over my experience: Halloween in Medellin is fun. I first wrote this post about my dating experience in Medellin back in April of Places frequented by tourists in Medellin are more saturated with foreigners than before. I am aware of the underworld of sex tourism and prostitution in Colombia and I know that there are many strip clubs and brothels in Medellin; however, strippers and pros are not the types of girls that I date, nor is it something I would like to promote; therefore, I will not be referring to that in this post.
Also, this is a narrative of my own experiences. It is not meant to be a guide or advice for other guys. Lastly, I do not intend to degrade or belittle women.
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The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
Do online dating websites work? Okay, it’s time to have an open and frank discussion about the battle of the sexes and the dating game. It’s far too complex, scary and difficult for mere mortals – so let’s bridge the gap by asking both men and women what doesn’t work when it comes to.
In love with someone who hurt me. Convinced myself that I could make things better. Stayed on my best behavior. Given myself pep talks about why I deserve more. Reached out to other people for help. Tried drinking until I was numb. Losing pieces of myself. Like grains of sand falling through an hourglass. Counting down until I was completely empty and numb. Maybe this is as good as it gets. And the only things worse than leaving is to stay.
I know how hard those nights are.
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The slope of the line is the ratio of enriched D to remaining can be used in place of “D now /P now” in the decay laneous notes. Age “uncertainty” When a “simple” dating method is performed, the result is a single number.
See Article History Rock, in geology , naturally occurring and coherent aggregate of one or more minerals. Such aggregates constitute the basic unit of which the solid Earth is comprised and typically form recognizable and mappable volumes. Rocks are commonly divided into three major classes according to the processes that resulted in their formation. These classes are 1 igneous rocks, which have solidified from molten material called magma; 2 sedimentary rocks, those consisting of fragments derived from preexisting rocks or of materials precipitated from solutions; and 3 metamorphic rocks, which have been derived from either igneous or sedimentary rocks under conditions that caused changes in mineralogical composition , texture, and internal structure.
These three classes, in turn, are subdivided into numerous groups and types on the basis of various factors, the most important of which are chemical, mineralogical, and textural attributes. Rocks can be any size. Some are smaller than these grains of sand. Others, like this large rock that was dropped as a glacier melted, are as large as, or larger than, small cars.
Since their constituent minerals are crystallized from molten material, igneous rocks are formed at high temperatures. They originate from processes deep within the Earth—typically at depths of about 50 to kilometres 30 to miles —in the mid- to lower-crust or in the upper mantle.